The kind of grass seed used will be dictated by the climate,
rainfall and the use to which the lawn will be put. General lawn
seed combinations are usually fescues and blue grasses. Your county
agricultural agent can recommend the proper blend.
Once the lawn is established, care and feeding is necessary to
keep it good looking. Lawns should be fertilized in the spring,
with one or two additional applications in the summer depending
on need. Fertilizers supplies nitrogen, phosphorus and potash.
Commercial chemical fertilizers supply these nutrients on relative
percentages. Organic fertilizers, such as manure or sheep manure,
must be placed well in advance of spring and worked into soil.
Nature has to convert the manure into the chemicals that are already
at work in the commercial fertilizers. Lime should be added in
the spring but only after testing the soil. In some areas this
could be an annual chore - in other areas the soil may require
lime only once in three or four years. * Check with local
codes as in some areas you must be licensed in order to disseminate
lawn chemicals in an area used by the public.
Regular mowing will improve a lawn. A rule of thumb for the mower
cuts is 1-1/2 inches in the spring and 2 inches (higher in extremely
dry seasons) during the hot and dry summer months.
Soil erosion often results during construction of the camp-resort.
Good architectural planning and landscaping can prevent much of
the problem. If problems occur after the camp is built, there
are several remedies. Erosion occurs due to the loss of areas,
which can absorb moisture: land is lost to roads, buildings, and
campsites themselves. Since the excess water must go somewhere,
it follows the path of least resistance. Three remedies are available:
- Storm drains with underground clay pipe placed at points
to collect maximum run off.
- Open drainage ditches by themselves or in conjunction with
- Step terrace areas where water flows over lawns in sheets,
in order to deter erosion. Old railroad ties can be buried to
form the steps. Areas between ties can be strengthened by the
use of heavy rooted ground cover.
Pruning is essential to maintaining a healthy tree to keep its
natural growth and good health. Trees should be pruned during
their dormant state in late fall or winter. The exceptions to
dormant pruning are flowering trees and shrubs, which should be
pruned after they bloom. Evergreens can be pruned during a growth
season if the aim is to produce a bushy or fuller plant. Cutting
the new leaves will encourage the spread.
Do not wait to prune out diseased or dead limbs; they should
be removed as soon as a problem is seen. Shrubbery may be pruned
at any time.
Waste Removal and Sanitation
To dispose of solid waste - the daily collections from campsite
refuse cans, the camp store and restaurant services - efficient
handling systems should be developed. The handout of camp-resort
rules should contain information on how campers are to dispose
of solid waste. The most efficient method is to place trash barrels
convenient to all campsites or provide a trash bag to each registered
guest and pick up on a daily basis.
Of particular importance and concern is the disposal, even in
small amounts, of toxic substances such as insecticides and herbicides.
Assistance in handling solid waste can be obtained from the local
environmental protection agency in each state.
The problem of litter goes along with waste disposal. Containers
for trash should be placed throughout the park, not just at campsites.
Signs, worded positively, should be prominent. Personnel assignments
should include someone responsible for daily policing of the camp
area to maintain clean and attractive looking grounds.
The type of water system installed largely depends on the size
of the camp-resort, the volume used per day, and operating economy.
Hard water, which contains calcium and magnesium salts, is corrosive.
If maintenance becomes a problem, consider installing water conditioners.
These are automatic and need only be charged occasionally with
Much of the problem of corrosion can be eliminated by the use
of plastic pipe. CPVC pipe, as it is called, will withstand pressures
of 180 points. It comes in 1/2-inch and 3/4-inch sizes and can
be cut with a saw or copper pipe cutter. Relatively trouble free
if there is no stress from bending, this piping will tolerate
freezing to some degree without cracking. Local codes should be
checked before installing CPVC or PVC pipe.
Lighting in a camp-resort is designed for the safety and comfort
of the campers. Exterior lighting is mandatory near the entrances
of all buildings, under the national electrical code. These can
be lights attached to the buildings and controlled from within,
or free-standing security lights controlled by photo-electric
cells. Main walkways from buildings to the camping area should
also have sufficient lighting.
In cases where lighting for foot traffic is desired, and does
not disturb campers in campsites, trail lights can be installed.
These are low lights, raised about two feet off the ground with
reflectors and lenses directing the beams along the trail.
The types of lighting will depend on the purposes. Four basic
types of lighting are incandescent, fluorescent, mercury vapor
and sodium vapor. For general lighting, around entrances of buildings
where the lighting is fixed to a porch or wall and controlled
from switches indoors, incandescent lights are normally used.
For general outdoor lighting, mercury vapor or sodium vapor are
far more economical. While incandescent light provides from 15
to 25 lumens per watt from conventional over-the-counter lamps,
mercury vapor and sodium are much more efficient. Sodium vapor
has an efficiency of over 100 lumens per watt.
Fences in a Camp-Resort serve two main purposes:
Barrier fences are used to keep campers within a confined area
or to keep other people and animals outside. The cyclone fence
is maintenance free and keeps out both unwanted strangers and
animals. Wood fences are both decorative and practical for containment
in corrals and around buildings to keep people from unauthorized
areas. Decorative fences of wood, pickets or split rail are excellent
along entrance roads, the highway and within the camp-resort around
the park area.
Screening fences can be used to preserve the aesthetics of a
camp-resort around areas that are unsightly by nature. A high,
six foot wooden fence can be used to hide the trash area behind
the store or kitchen, piles of gravel or dirt, and the maintenance
area. What is most important is to consider the beauty a fence
can bring to an area even though it has a more important function
For baseball diamonds, etc., a good fescue combined with Red
Top and rye grass is a durable cover with high resistance to wear.
Mowing should be frequent; in the spring cut to 1-1/2 inches and
then 2 inches in the drier July and August months.
In primarily decorative areas, blue grass and fescue combinations
are attractive. They can be cut in the same manner as the sports
field and need little other care except for annual treatment for
weeds and food. (Fertilizer)
Graveled roads in a Camp-Resort should be graded regularly and
any potholes should be filled immediately. Bituminous concrete
or asphalt roads should get the same prompt care. If gravel roads
are utilized consider some type of program for dust control.
Trails should receive frequent brush cutting to keep them clear
and open. They should be inspected for fallen branches, etc. after
storms. Use of a good herbicide in the spring, after new growth
is underway, will keep trails relatively free of ground cover
throughout the season. Bridges, steps, and other constructed portions
of the trail should be scheduled for periodic painting and repair,
as well as for day-to-day maintenance.